“ATTY., ANO PO ANG REMEDY KUNG MAY NAREHISTRONG PEKENG MARRIAGE SA NSO?”
ANG PEKENG KASAL O KASAL NA NIREHISTRO LAMANG NGUNIT WALANG MARRIAGE CEREMONY O WALANG PALITAN NG “I DO” O ANG TINATAWAG NA KASAL SA PAPEL O KASAL NA NIREHISTRO LANG SA NSO O LOCAL CIVIL REGISTRAR AY ISANG VOID MARRIAGE NA PWEDENG IPAKANSELA SA KORTE SA PAMAMAGITAN NG RULE 108 NG RULES OF COURT O RULE ON CANCELLATION OF ENTRY IN CIVIL REGISTRY.
Marami akong na-encounter na humingi ng payo sa E-Lawyers Online kung saan bigla na lang may narehistro na marriage contract sa NSO kahit hindi sila kinasal. Ganito ang question ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:
“Atty., may dati po akong girlfriend before ako mag-abroad. Sabi nya na magpakasal kami before umalis ako sa abroad pero hindi ako pumayag. After ko mag-abroad ay naghiwalay kami. Nacheck ko lang sa NSO na meron siya narehistro na marriage contract. Paano ko po maalis ang marriage contract sa NSO?”
Ang tawag dito ay “fake marriage” or “spurious marriage” kung saan walang naganap na kasal at ito ay nirehistro lang sa NSO o Local Civil registrar na walang nagaganap na marriage ceremony at ang ganitong kasal ay isang void marriage na pwedeng ipakansela sa korte. Ayon sa Article 3 (3) ng Family Code, isa sa mga formal requirements ng isang valid na marriage ay ang pagkakaroon ng “marriage ceremony” kung saan sabay na humaharap ang ikakasal ng personal sa solemnizing officer o sa mgakakasal tulad ng pari, judge, ministro at nagbibigay sila ng personal declaration na they take each other as husband and wife in the presence of not less than two witnesses of legal age. Kung wala ang ganitong formal requirement ng marriage, ito ay void ab initio at pwedeng mapawalang bisa sa korte. Under Article 3 of the Family Code of the Philippines, it stated that:
“Art. 3. The formal requisites of marriage are:
(1) Authority of the solemnizing officer;
(2) A valid marriage license except in the cases provided for in Chapter 2 of this Title; and
(3) A marriage ceremony which takes place with the appearance of the contracting parties before the solemnizing officer and their personal declaration that they take each other as husband and wife in the presence of not less than two witnesses of legal age.” (emphasis and underscore ours)
The Family Code further stated that:
“Art. 4. The absence of any of the essential or formal requisites shall render the marriage void ab initio, except as stated in Article 35 (2).”(emphasis and underscore ours)
Ayon sa Supreme Court case ni Lucio Morigo y Cacho vs. People of the Philippines [G.R. No. 145226. February 06, 2004 ], which ruled that lack of actual marriage ceremony performed by an authorized solemnizing is void ab initio, to wit:
“In the instant case, however, no marriage ceremony at all was performed by a duly authorized solemnizing officer. Petitioner and Lucia Barrete merely signed a marriage contract on their own. The mere private act of signing a marriage contract bears no semblance to a valid marriage x x x”.
Sa isang Supreme Court case, sinabi na pwedeng ipakansela sa korte under Rule 108 ng Rules of Court ang isang pekeng marriage na hindi talaga nangyari at hindi na kailangan pa ang annulment of marriage. Itong kaso na ito ay applicable lamang sa isang marriage contract na nirehistro ng walang alam ang isa sa mga partido na kinasal. Hindi kailangan ang annulment of marriage dito dahil wala namang marriage na nangyari. [Republic vs. Olaybar, G.R. No. 189538, February 10, 2014]
“Aside from the certificate of marriage, no such evidence was presented to show the existence of marriage. Rather, respondent showed by overwhelming evidence that no marriage was entered into and that she was not even aware of such existence. The testimonial and documentary evidence clearly established that the only “evidence” of marriage which is the marriage certificate was a forgery. While we maintain that Rule 108 cannot be availed of to determine the validity of marriage, we cannot nullify the proceedings before the trial court where all the parties had been given the opportunity to contest the allegations of respondent; the procedures were followed, and all the evidence of the parties had already been admitted and examined. Respondent indeed sought, not the nullification of marriage as there was no marriage to speak of, but the correction of the record of such marriage to reflect the truth as set forth by the evidence. Otherwise stated, in allowing the correction of the subject certificate of marriage by cancelling the wife portion thereof, the trial court did not, in any way, declare the marriage void as there was no marriage to speak of.”
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