“ANO ANG PWEDENG GAWIN PARA SINGILIN ANG UTANG PAGKATAPOS KASUHAN SA KORTE AT AYAW MAGBAYAD?” ANO ANG IBIG SABIHIN NG WRIT OF EXECUTION NA GALING SA KORTE?”
ANG PAGSINGIL SA UTANG SA PAMAMAGITAN NG SINAMPANG KASO SA KORTE AY GINAGAWA SA PAMAMAGITAN NG WRIT OF EXECUTION NG KORTE KUNG SAAN ANG SHERIFF NG KORTE AT UNANG NAGBIBIGAY NG DEMAND SA MAY UTANG NA BAYARAN KAAGAD ANG UTANG NA INUUTOS NG KORTE. KUNG HINDI MAGBAYAD ANG MAY UTANG, ANG SHERIFF NG KORTE AY SAPILITAN NA KUKUHA NG MGA PROPERTIES NG TAONG MAY UTANG NA HINDI EXEMPTED SA BATAS SA PAMAMAGITAN NG LEVY AT GARNISHMENT AT ITO AY IBEBENTA SA ISANG PUBLIC AUCTION AT ANG NAPAGBENTAHAN NA PERA AY IBABAYAD SA NAGPAUTANG KASAMA ANG LAHAT NG GASTOS AT ANG NATITIRANG PERA AY IBABALIK SA TAONG MAY UTANG.
Marami ang nagtanong sa E-Lawyers Online kung paano nila masisingil ang kanilang pa-utang sa tao kung walang pera at ang natitirang properties lamang ay kotse at lupa. Ganito ang tanong ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:
“Atty., paano ko po masisingil ang pautang ko sa kaibigan ko. Wala daw po siya pera pero marami naman po siya lupa at paupahan na apartment. Paano ko po mapilitan siya na ibenta ang isang apartment niya para pambayad sa akin?”
Ang utang ng isang tao ay pwede lamang sapilitang singilin sa pamamagitan ng kaso sa korte na idinadaan sa proseso ng korte. Ang anumang pamimilit sa pagbabayad ng utang ay isang criminal act ng coercion na may parusang kulong. Upang sapilitan na ibenta ang anumang property ng isang taong may utang, kailangan na maging final ang decision ng korte at magkaroon ng “writ of execution”.
Ano ang “writ of execution”?
Ang writ of execution ay ang utos ng korte sa sheriff na tinalaga upang ipatupad ang desisyon ng korte na singilin ang taong may utang at ibayad ito sa taong nagpautang. Ang writ of execution ay nagsisimula sa pagpapadala ng notice of demand for immediate payment ng sheriff at kung hindi pa rin nagbayad ang umutang, ang korte sa pamamagitan ng sheriff ay mag-issue at magpaparehistro sa Registry of Deeds ng mga probinsiya kung saan matatagpuan ang mga real properties ng taong may utang ng tinatawag na “levy on execution” at sa LTO office kung saan ang mga sasakyan ng taong umutang ay nakarehistro. Ganun din, ang sheriff ay mag-bibigya ng Notice of Garnishment sa mga bankong may nakadepositong pera ang taong umutang at inuutusan ang banko na i-hold ito at i-release ang pera sa korte para ipambayad sa perang utang ayon sa desisyon ng korte.
Pagkatapos na magprehistro ng “levy” ang sheriff, agad itatakda ang public auction ng mga properties ng taong umutang para ibenta ito sa publiko at ang napagbentahan na pera ay ibabayad sa utang ayon sa desisyon ng korte at ang natitirang pera ay ibabalik sa taong umutang.
Ito ay naayon sa Section 9, Rule 39 ng Rules of Court:
Section 9. Execution of judgments for money, how enforced. —
(a) Immediate payment on demand. — The officer shall enforce an execution of a judgment for money by demanding from the judgment obligor the immediate payment of the full amount stated in the writ of execution and all lawful fees. The judgment obligor shall pay in cash, certified bank check payable to the judgment obligee, or any other form of payment acceptable to the latter, the amount of the judgment debt under proper receipt directly to the judgment obligee or his authorized representative if present at the time of payment. The lawful fees shall be handed under proper receipt to the executing sheriff who shall turn over the said amount within the same day to the clerk of court of the court that issued the writ.
If the judgment obligee or his authorized representative is not present to receive payment, the judgment obligor shall deliver the aforesaid payment to the executing sheriff. The latter shall turn over all the amounts coming into his possession within the same day to the clerk of court of the court that issued the writ, or if the same is not practicable, deposit said amounts to a fiduciary account in the nearest government depository bank of the Regional Trial Court of the locality.
The clerk of said court shall thereafter arrange for the remittance of the deposit to the account of the court that issued the writ whose clerk of court shall then deliver said payment to the judgment obligee in satisfaction of the judgment. The excess, if any, shall be delivered to the judgment obligor while the lawful fees shall be retained by the clerk of court for disposition as provided by law. In no case shall the executing sheriff demand that any payment by check be made payable to him.
(b) Satisfaction by levy. — If the judgment obligor cannot pay all or part of the obligation in cash, certified bank check or other mode of payment acceptable to the judgment obligee, the officer shall levy upon the properties of the judgment obligor of every kind and nature whatsoever which may be disposed, of for value and not otherwise exempt from execution giving the latter the option to immediately choose which property or part thereof may be levied upon, sufficient to satisfy the judgment. If the judgment obligor does not exercise the option, the officer shall first levy on the personal properties, if any, and then on the real properties if the personal properties are insufficient to answer for the judgment.
The sheriff shall sell only a sufficient portion of the personal or real property of the judgment obligor which has been levied upon.
When there is more property of the judgment obligor than is sufficient to satisfy the judgment and lawful fees, he must sell only so much of the personal or real property as is sufficient to satisfy the judgment and lawful fees.
Real property, stocks, shares, debts, credits, and other personal property, or any interest in either real or personal property, may be levied upon in like manner and with like effect as under a writ of attachment.
(c) Garnishment of debts and credits. — The officer may levy on debts due the judgment obligor and other credits, including bank deposits, financial interests, royalties, commissions and other personal property not capable of manual delivery in the possession or control of third parties. Levy shall be made by serving notice upon the person owing such debts or having in his possession or control such credits to which the judgment obligor is entitled. The garnishment shall cover only such amount as will satisfy the judgment and all lawful fees.
The garnishee shall make a written report to the court within five (5) days from service of the notice of garnishment stating whether or not the judgment obligor has sufficient funds or credits to satisfy the amount of the judgment. If not, the report shall state how much funds or credits the garnishee holds for the judgment obligor. The garnished amount in cash, or certified bank check issued in the name of the judgment obligee, shall be delivered directly to the judgment obligee within ten (10) working days from service of notice on said garnishee requiring such delivery, except the lawful fees which shall be paid directly to the court.
In the event there are two or more garnishees holding deposits or credits sufficient to satisfy the judgment, the judgment obligor, if available, shall have the right to indicate the garnishee or garnishees who shall be required to deliver the amount due, otherwise, the choice shall be made by the judgment obligee.
The executing sheriff shall observe the same procedure under paragraph (a) with respect to delivery of payment to the judgment obligee. (8a, 15a)
Ang writ of execution ay hindi pwedeng ipatupad kung ang property ay exempted under Section 10, Rule 39 ng Rules of Court. Katulad ng “family home” dahil ito ay isa sa pinoprotektahan ng ating batas dahil ito ang tirahan ng pamilya na sinasandigan ng isang matatag na pamayanan. Ito ay nasa Article 152 ng Family Code:
Art. 152. The family home, constituted jointly by the husband and the wife or by an unmarried head of a family, is the dwelling house where they and their family reside, and the land on which it is situated.
Dahil ang “family home” ay protektado ng batas, ito ay exempted sa levy, attachment, forced sale or execution ayon sa Article 153 ng Family Code. Ngunit ang exemption na ito ay hindi applicable sa apat (4) na klase ng utang ayon sa Article 155 ng Family Code.
ARTICLE 155. The family home shall be exempt from execution, forced sale or attachment except:
(1) For nonpayment of taxes;
(2) For debts incurred prior to the constitution of the family home;
(3) For debts secured by mortgages on the premises before or after such constitution; and
(4) For debts due to laborers, mechanics, architects, builders, materialmen and others who have rendered service or furnished material for the construction of the building.
Gayundin, ang exemption ng family home ay may limitasyon din as to the amount ng coverage. Ito ay ayon sa Article 157 ng Family Code:
ARTICLE 157. The actual value of the family home shall not exceed, at the time of its constitution, the amount of three hundred thousand pesos in urban areas, and two hundred thousand pesos in rural areas, or such amounts as may hereafter be fixed by law. In any event, if the value of the currency changes after the adoption of this Code, the value most favorable for the constitution of a family home shall be the basis of evaluation. For purposes of this Article, urban areas are deemed to include chartered cities and municipalities whose annual income at least equals that legally required for chartered cities. All others are deemed to be rural areas.
Kung lumampas na ang actual value ng family home sa P300,000 o P200,000, ang creditor ay pwedeng pumunta sa korte na nagdesisyon upang hilingin na ibenta ang family home sa isang public auction at kung anuman ang napagbentahan dito ay unang ibibigay sa may-ari ng family home to the extent ng P300,000 o P200,000 at ang anumang sobra ay ibibigay sa creditor pambayad sa utang at kung may sobra ay ibabalik sa may utang. Ito ay naayon sa Article 160 ng Family Code.
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