Kapag Matagal Na Bang Nagbabayad ng Amilyar Sa Lupa, Pwede Na Ba Ito Matituluhan?

“ATTY., TWENTY YEARS NA KAMI NA NAKATIRA AT NAGABABAYAD NG AMILYAR SA LUPA, PWEDE BA MATITULOHAN NAMIN ANG LUPA?” 

ANG ISANG LUPA AY PWEDENG MAPATITULOHAN KUNG ITO AY ISANG ALIENABLE AND DISPOSABLE PUBLIC LAND SA PAMAMAGITAN NG JUDICIAL APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION OF UNTITLED LAND UNDER PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1529. ANG TAX DECLARATION AY HINDI SIGURADONG EBIDENSIYA NG PAGMAMAY-ARI NG LUPA NGUNIT PWEDE ITONG MAGING BASEHAN NG PAGMAMAY-ARI NG LUPA AT PAGKUHA NG TITULO DITO KUNG ANG TAONG NAKADEKLARA DITO ANG SIYANG NAKAPWESTO O GUMAGAMIT DITO.

Marami ang nagtatanong sa E-Lawyers Online kung paano mapapatitulohan ang tax declaration nila bilang ebidensiya ng pagmamay-ari ng lupa. Ganito ang question ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:

“Hello po, matagal ko na gusto malaman kung paano po mapapatitulohan ang lupa ng tatay ko na sinasaka niya for more than 30 years na po. Hawak ko lang po ay tax declaration pero kami po nagbabayad ng amilyar sa munisipyo at meron na naman po kami lot plan. Paano po ba?”

Ayon sa Supreme Court, ang “tax declaration ay hindi titulo ng lupa. Maraming Supreme Court decision din ang nagsasabi na “Tax declarations and receipts are not conclusive evidence of ownership. At most, they constitute mere prima facie proof of ownership of the property for which taxes have been paid. In the absence of actual, public and adverse possession, the declaration of the land for tax purposes does not prove ownership.” Ibig sabihin nito na ang tax declaration ay hindi siguradong ebidensiya ng pagmamay-ari ng lupa. While tax declarations and receipts are not conclusive evidence of ownership and do not prove title to the land, nevertheless, when coupled with actual possession, they constitute evidence of great weight and can be the basis of a claim of ownership through prescription. (Spouses Aguirre vs. Heirs of Villanueva, G.R. No. 169898, October 27, 2006).

Ang tax declaration ay pwedeng i-apply para maging titulo. May dalawang pamamaraan ng pagpaparehistro ng lupa, ito ay ang sumusunod:

1)           Judicial Proceeding – kung saan kinakailangan ninyong magfile ng petisyon para sa registration sa korte.

2)           Administrative Proceeding – ito ay pamamaraan kung saan hindi na kailangang pang dumaan sa husgado at ang kailangan ay mag-file ng application para sa “Homestead Patent” sa DENR at ang registration ng patent na ito ang magiging batayan para sa pag-isyu ng Original Certificate of Title alinsunod sa Commonwealth Act 141 o ang “THE PUBLIC LAND ACT”.

Sa pagpaparehistro ng lupa alinsunod sa PD No. 1529 (Property Registration Decree) na inilabas noong Hunyo 11, 1978 kung saan kinakailangan pang magfile ng petition sa korte (JUDICIAL PROCEEDING). Ang mga sumusunod ang mga maaaring magrehistro ng lupa sa ilalim ng batas na ito:

1) Those who by themselves or their predecessors-in-interest have been in open, continuous, exclusive and notorious possession and occupation of alienable and disposable lands of the public domain under bona fide  claim of ownership since June 12, 1945, or earlier. 

            2) Those have acquired ownership of private lands by prescription under the provisions of existing laws.

            3) Those who have acquired ownership of private lands or abandoned river bends by right of accession or acquired under existing laws

            4) Those who have acquired ownership of land in any other manner provided for by law.

At ang mga requirements sa batas na ito (PD 1529) upang makapagsampa ng petition for judicial registration of untitled land and issuance of title ay:

1)  Proof as to the identity of the land

– Kinakailangan ng survey plan na inaprubahan ng Direktor ng Land Management Bureau. Kinakailangan mong ipasukat muli ang lupang nais mong iparehistro.

2)  Proof of classification of land as “Alieanble and Disposable Public Land”

– Kung hindi malinaw na ang lupa ay alienable and disposable public land, ang petition sa korte ay hindi aaprobahan. Ang alinman sa mga sumusunod ay maaaring ikonsiderang sapat na ebidensya para patunayan na ang lupa ay “alienable at disposable”

  • Certification of the Bureau of Forest Development
  • Land Classification Map
  • Executive proclamation
  • Legislative act or executive proclamation
  • Report of a land inspector of the Bureau of Lands
  • Certification by the CENRO of the DENR
  • Certification by DENR Regional Technical Director

May presumption ang batas na kung hindi mapatunayan na ang lupa ay pribadong pagmamay-ari, ang Estado ang may-ari nito at hindi pwedeng patitulohan. Ito ay isa sa mga desisyon ng Supreme Court sa kasong Valiao et.al vs. Republic et.al, G.R. 170757, November 28, 2011:

“Under the Regalian Doctrine, all lands not appearing to be clearly within private ownership are presumed to belong to the State. They are beyond the commerce of man and not susceptible of private appropriation and acquisitive prescription. Occupation thereof in the concept of owner no matter how long cannot ripen into ownership and be registered. The burden of overcoming the presumption is on the person applying for registration who must prove that the land is alienable and disposable by means of a positive act of the government such as a presidential proclamation or an executive order; an administrative action; investigation reports of the Bureau of lands; and a legislative act or statute. The applicant may also secure a government certification that the land claimed to have been possessed for the required number of years is alienable and disposable. In this case, no such evidence was offered by Pedro et.al. So land is still an inalienable public domain.”

3) Evidence of Possession

– Kung inookupa niyo ang nasabing lupa sa tuloy-tuloy na panahon at loob ng matagal na panahon, mayroon kayong “exclusive dominion” sa nasabing lupa at kung alam ng mga inyong nakararaming kapitbahay na kayo nga ay umuukupa sa nasabing lupa

4) Tax declarations / Tax receipts

– Tax declarations and payment of taxes are not conclusive proof of ownership but have strong probative value when accompanied by proof of actual possession or supported by other effective proof. (Malabanan vs. Republic, GR No. 158449, Oct. 22, 2004)

Katulad ng reader ng E-Lawyers Online na nagtanong kung pwede patitulohan ang kanyang lupa, kailangan niya na makasigurado na ito ay isang alienable and disposable public land. Kung ang lupa ay parte ng ilog, dagat o kagubatan o forest land o kaya parte ng isang public infrastructure for public use katulad ng airport at iba pa, hindi ito matatawag na alienable and disposable public land unless it was classified as such.

Ang application for judicial registration of untitled land and issuance of title ay pwedeng isampa sa Municipal Trial Court o Regional Trial Court kung saan makikita ang lupa depende sa kanyang value. Kailangan patunayan ng petitioner na siya ay nagbigay ng notice sa adjoining owner at sa Office of Solicitor General upang makumpleto ang pag-acquire ng jurisdiction ng korte.

Kung gusto nyo na magkonsulta tungkol sa pagrehistro ng lupa at pagpapatitulo, at kailangan na mga dokumento nito, register at my website at www.e-lawyersonline.com.

Visit and also like my FB page E-Lawyers Online. Ito ang link http://www.facebook.com/E.Lawyers.Online.

All copyright of this post is reserved by Atty. Marlon P. Valderama and E-Lawyers Online. Sharing is allowed provided the author is acknowledged and clearly indicated.

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