“ATTY., PAANO PO NAMIN MA-CLAIM ANG BANK DEPOSIT NG AMING MAGULANG NA NADISCOVER NAMIN AFTER MATAGAL NA SILANG PATAY? SABI NG BANKO AY WALA NA KAMI HABOL DOON, TAMA PO BA?”
ANG ANUMANG PERA NA NAKADEPOSITO SA ANUMANG BANK SA PILIPINAS AY PWEDENG I-FORFEIT AT KUNIN NG GOBYERNO SA ILALIM NG ACT. NO. 3936, AS AMENDED BY P.D. 679 O ANG TINATAWAG NA UNCLAIMED BALANCE LAW. ANG ANUMANG DEPOSITO SA BANKO NA HINDI NAGAGALAW NG MAY-ARI NITO SA LOOB NG SAMPUNG TAON AY DAPAT I-REPORT NG BANKO SA NASABING DEPOSITOR AT KUNG WALANG KUMUHA SA NASABING DEPOSITO, ITO AY I-REREPORT SA GOBYERNO UPANG PASIMULAN ANG ESCHEAT O FORFEITURE PROCEEDINGS PARA KUNIN ITO.
May nagtanong sa E-Lawyers Online kung ano ang karapatan nila sa matagal naiwan na deposito ng pera sa banko. Ganito ang question ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:
“Meron po naiwan na P100,000 na deposito ang namatay na mister ko sa abroad. Nadiscover lang po namin after 4 years ng macheck ko mga gamit niya. Pinuntahan po namin ang banko pero sabi po ay wala na daw yong pera at kinuha na ng gobyerno. Pwede po ba yon?”
Ang perang nakadeposito sa banko ay pag-aari ng depositor at hindi pwedeng kunin ng banko o ng gobyerno ng hindi naayon sa batas. Ang anumang pera na nakadeposito sa banko na walang kumukuha o gumagalaw ay pwedeng kunin ng Republic of the Philippines under escheat proceedings. Ayon sa Supreme Court na kaso ng RCBC vs. Hi-Tri Development Corp., G.R. No. 192413, July 13, 2012:
“Escheat proceedings refer to the judicial process in which the state, by virtue of its sovereignty, steps in and claims abandoned, left vacant, or unclaimed property, without there being an interested person having a legal claim thereto. In the case of dormant accounts, the state inquires into the status, custody, and ownership of the unclaimed balance to determine whether the inactivity was brought about by the fact of death or absence of or abandonment by the depositor. If after the proceedings the property remains without a lawful owner interested to claim it, the property shall be reverted to the state to forestall an open invitation to self-service by the first comers. However, if interested parties have come forward and lain claim to the property, the courts shall determine whether the credit or deposit should pass to the claimants or be forfeited in favor of the state. We emphasize that escheat is not a proceeding to penalize depositors for failing to deposit to or withdraw from their accounts. It is a proceeding whereby the state compels the surrender to it of unclaimed deposit balances when there is substantial ground for a belief that they have been abandoned, forgotten, or without an owner.”
Under Act No. 3936 as amended by P.D. 679 otherwise known as “Unclaimed Balance Law’, ang isang deposito ng pera sa banko na hindi gumagalaw o na-abandona ng depositor for more than 10 years ay kailangang na magbigay ng notice sa depositor para ipaalam ang gagawin na pagrereport sa Republic of the Philippines.
“Sec. 1. “Unclaimed balances”, within the meaning of this Act, shall include credits or deposits of money, bullion, security or other evidence of indebtedness of any kind, and interest thereon with banks, buildings and loan associations, and trust corporations, as hereinafter defined, in favor of any person known to be dead or who has not made further deposits or withdrawals during the preceding ten years or more. Such unclaimed balances, together with the increase and proceeds thereof, shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the Philippines to the credit of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines to be used as the National Assembly may direct.
Ayon sa nasabing batas, kailangan na ipaalam sa depositor ang gagawin na pagrereport sa Treasurer of the Philippines:
Sec. 2. Immediately after the taking effect of this Act and within the month of January of every odd year, all banks, building and loan associations, and trust corporations shall forward to the Treasurer of the Philippines a statement, under oath, of their respective managing officers, of all credits and deposits held by them in favor of persons known to be dead, or who have not made further deposits or withdrawals during the preceding ten years or more, arranged in alphabetical order according to the names of creditors and depositors, and showing:
(a) The names and last known place of residence or post office addresses of the persons in whose favor such unclaimed balances stand;
(b) The amount and the date of the outstanding unclaimed balance and whether the same is in money or in security, and if the latter, the nature of the same;
(c) The date when the person in whose favor the unclaimed balance stands died, if known, or the date when he made his last deposit or withdrawal; and
(d) The interest due on such unclaimed balance, if any, and the amount thereof.
A copy of the above sworn statement shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the premises of the bank, building and loan association, or trust corporation concerned for at least sixty days from the date of filing thereof: Provided, That immediately before filing the above sworn statement, the bank, building and loan association, and trust corporation shall communicate with the person in whose favor the unclaimed balance stands at his last known place of residence or post office address.
It shall be the duty of the Treasurer of the Philippines to inform the Solicitor General from time to time the existence of unclaimed balances held by banks, building and loan associations, and trust corporations. (Emphasis supplied.)”
Kung hindi sinunod ng banko ang procedure ng pagbibigay ng notice sa depositor, ang pagrereport at pagforfeit ng deposit ng gobyerno ay illegal at pwedeng singilin sa korte.
Kung ang deposito naman ay nasa pangalan ng namatay, ang tagapagmana ay pwede lamang ito mawithdraw sa pamamagitan ng pag-execute ng extrajudicial settlement of estate at pagbabayad ng estate tax. Kung wala ito, ang anumang deposito ng isang namatay na tao ay hindi pwedeng kunin at ibigay ng banko.
Kung gusto nyo magtanong ukol sa unclaimed deposits o escheat procedure, register at my website at www.e-lawyersonline.com.
Visit and also like my FB page E-Lawyers Online. Ito ang link http://www.facebook.com/E.Lawyers.Online.