“ATTY., ANO PO BA KARAPATAN KO BILANG LIVE-IN PARTNER? PWEDE KO BA SIYA KASUHAN DAHIL PINAGPALIT NIYA AKO SA IBANG BABAE?”
ANG LIVE-IN RELATIONSHIP AY WALANG LEGAL NA RELASYON BILANG MAG-ASAWA AT NABUBUO LAMANG NA RELASYON SA KANILA AY SA MGA ARI-ARIAN NILA NA NAPUNDAR NA PAGHAHATIAN NILA IN EQUAL SHARE O BASED SA ACTUAL CONTRIBUTION NILA DEPENDE SA KANILANG CIRCUMSTANCES.
Marami ngayon ang nasa live-in relationship at marami din ang naghihiwalay at ang usual na tanong ay kung hanggang saan ang karapatan nila bilang partner. Ganito ang question ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:
“Meron po ako ka live-in for 5 years atty. Lately po ay nahuli ko sya na may katagpo na lalaki, pwede ko ba siya kasuhan?”Paano atty ang mga pundar ko if naghiwalay kami?”
“Atty., nambababae po ang asawa ko pero hindi kami kasal. Pwede ko ba siya ipakulong?”
Karamihan ng nagtatanong sa E-Lawyers Online ay tungkol sa live-in relationships at karaniwan na pagkwento nila ng pangyayari ay sinasabi nila na ang live-in partner nila ay “asawa” nila. Bilang paglilinaw sa batas, ang isang tao ay matatawag na isang “asawa” kung legal sila na kasal sa isat-isa. Kung sila ay nasa live-in relationship, ang tamang tawag ay dapat “partner”.
Kung kasal ang dalawang tao sa isat-isa, meron silang legal na relasyon at isang special contract na recognized ng batas. Napapaloob sa special contract na ito ang mga obligasyon nila bilang mag-asawa at ito ay nasa Article 68 ng Family Code.
Art. 68. The husband and wife are obliged to live together, observe mutual love, respect and fidelity, and render mutual help and support.
Dahil walang special contract at legal na relasyon ang dalawang tao na nasa live-in relationship, wala rin silang obligasyon sa batas na sundin ang nasa Article 68 ng Family Code. Kung kaya, sinuman sa nasa live-in relationship ay may kalayaan na lumabas sa relasyon at humanap ng iba at hindi ito pwedeng pigilan ng kapartner niya at walang batas na pipigil sa kaniya. Hindi makakasuhan ang babae na nasa live-in relationship na nakipagrelasyon sa ibang lalaki at ganun din ang lalaki na nasa live-in relationship na nakipagrelasyon sa ibang babae dahil wala silang obligation of mutual fidelity.
Anong relasyon ang nabubuo sa isang live-in relationship?
Ang nabubuong relasyon sa live-in relationship ay tungkol sa kanilang napundar na ari-arian. Ito ay nasa Article 147 and 148 ng Family Code:
Art. 147. When a man and a woman who are capacitated to marry each other, live exclusively with each other as husband and wife without the benefit of marriage or under a void marriage, their wages and salaries shall be owned by them in equal shares and the property acquired by both of them through their work or industry shall be governed by the rules on co-ownership.
In the absence of proof to the contrary, properties acquired while they lived together shall be presumed to have been obtained by their joint efforts, work or industry, and shall be owned by them in equal shares. For purposes of this Article, a party who did not participate in the acquisition by the other party of any property shall be deemed to have contributed jointly in the acquisition thereof if the former’s efforts consisted in the care and maintenance of the family and of the household.
Neither party can encumber or dispose by acts inter vivos of his or her share in the property acquired during cohabitation and owned in common, without the consent of the other, until after the termination of their cohabitation.
When only one of the parties to a void marriage is in good faith, the share of the party in bad faith in the co-ownership shall be forfeited in favor of their common children. In case of default of or waiver by any or all of the common children or their descendants, each vacant share shall belong to the respective surviving descendants. In the absence of descendants, such share shall belong to the innocent party. In all cases, the forfeiture shall take place upon termination of the cohabitation. (144a)
Art. 148. In cases of cohabitation not falling under the preceding Article, only the properties acquired by both of the parties through their actual joint contribution of money, property, or industry shall be owned by them in common in proportion to their respective contributions. In the absence of proof to the contrary, their contributions and corresponding shares are presumed to be equal. The same rule and presumption shall apply to joint deposits of money and evidences of credit.
If one of the parties is validly married to another, his or her share in the co-ownership shall accrue to the absolute community or conjugal partnership existing in such valid marriage. If the party who acted in bad faith is not validly married to another, his or her shall be forfeited in the manner provided in the last paragraph of the preceding Article.
The foregoing rules on forfeiture shall likewise apply even if both parties are in both faith. (144a)
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