Pwede Ba Kasuhan Ang Inutangan Dahil Nagbanta Sa Facebook?

 

“ATTY., PWEDE KO BA KASUHAN ANG INUTANGAN KO DAHIL NAGBABANTA SIYA NA KAKASUHAN NIYA AKO SA KORTE NG ESTAFA?”

ANG PAGBABANTA NG PAGSASAMPA NG KASO SA ISANG TAO AY ISANG LEGAL NA GAWAIN AT HINDI ISANG KRIMEN AT WALA ITONG PARUSANG KULONG DAHIL WALANG PARUSA ANG BATAS SA PAGGGAMIT NG KARAPATAN NG ISANG TAO NA DUMULOG SA HUKUMAN PARA IPATUPAD ANG KANYANG KARAPATAN. NGUNIT ANG PAGSASAMPA NG KASO NG WALANG LEGAL AT TUNAY NA BASEHAN AY PWEDENG MAKASUHAN NG KASONG SIBIL SA KORTE BILANG ISANG “MALICIOUS PROSECUTION”AT PAGBAYARAN SIYA NG DANYOS. 

Marami ang nakakatanggap ng pagbabanta sa Facebook at iba pang social media ng mga pagbabanta na sila ay kakasuhan sa korte at ang usual na tanong ay kung pwedeng kasuhan ang taong nagbanta nito. Ganito ang question ng reader ng E-lawyers Online:

“Meron po ako kapitbahay atty na galit sa akin at isang araw ay nagkasamaan kami ng tingin at sinigawan ko siya pero binantaan niya ako na kakasuhan sa paninigaw ko? Pwede ko ba siya kasuhan sa pagbabanta niya?”

“Hi po atty., ano ikakaso ko sa friend ko po na grabe maningil ng pautang sa akin kesyo ipa sheriff daw niya ako o kaya kasuhan ng estafa at kasuhan sa korte. Pwede ko ba siya kasuhan dahil sa panghaharass niya?”

Lahat ba ng pagbabanta ay may parusang kulong sa batas? Ito ang usual na tanong ng mag readers. Merong tatlong klase ng criminal threats o pagbabanta na pinaparusahan ng kulong sa Revised Penal Code. Ito ay ang Grave Threats under Article 282, Light Threats under Article 282 at Other Light Threats under Article 282 ng Revised Penal Code.

Ayon sa Revised Penal Code, Article 282 ang GRAVE THREAT ay isang krimen kung saan pinaparusahan ang isang tao na nagbanta sa isang tao ng pananakit sa kanyang katauhan, honor o ari-arian sa pamamagitan ng paggawa ng anumang gawain na isang krimen. Ang parusa sa grave threat ay mababa ng isang degree depende sa krimen na bantang gagawin ng nagbanta at depende kung ito ay may kundisyon na binigay katulad ng pagbibigay ng pera o paggawa ng ibang bagay o kundisyon at kung ang kanyang dahilan sa pagbabanta ay natupad.

Art. 282. Grave threats. Any person who shall threaten another with the infliction upon the person, honor or property of the latter or of his family of any wrong amounting to a crime, shall suffer:

  1. The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for the crime he threatened to commit, if the offender shall have made the threat demanding money or imposing any other condition, even though not unlawful, and said offender shall have attained his purpose. If the offender shall not have attained his purpose, the penalty lower by two degrees shall be imposed.

If the threat be made in writing or through a middleman, the penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period.

  1. The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos, if the threat shall not have been made subject to a condition.

Kung ang pagbabanta ay ginawa ng isang tao o middleman para sa isang tao, ang parusa ay ilalagay ng korte sa maximum period.

Article 283. Light threats. – Any threat to commit a wrong not constituting a crime, made in the manner expressed in subdivision 1 of the next preceding article, shall be punished by arresto mayor.

Article 285. Other light threats. – The penalty of arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos shall be imposed upon:

  1. Any person who, without being included in the provisions of the next preceding article, shall threaten another with a weapon or draw such weapon in a quarrel, unless it be in lawful self-defense.
  2. Any person who, in the heat of anger, shall orally threaten another with some harm not constituting a crime, and who by subsequent acts show that he did not persist in the idea involved in his threat, provided that the circumstances of the offense shall not bring it within the provisions of Article 282 of this Code.
  3. Any person who shall orally threaten to do another any harm not constituting a felony.

Kung ang banta ay pagbabanta na kakasuhan ang isang tao sa korte, ito ba ay may parusa?

Hindi. Ang pagbabanta na magsasampa ng kaso sa korte ay isang legal threat o legal na pagbabanta. Ito ay hindi pinaparusahan ng batas dahil ang pagbabanta ng pagsasampa ng kaso ay isang karapatan na ginagalang ng batas. In the Supreme Court case of Crystal v. Bank of the Philippine Islands [G.R. No. 172428,  November 28, 2008] it “is instructive on this point, as it tells us that the law never intended to impose a penalty on the right to litigate so that the filing of an unfounded suit does not automatically entitle the defendant to moral damages”x x x.

Kung ang pagbabanta ng kaso ay tinuloy at napatunayan na ito ay malisyoso at walang legal at aktuwal na basehan, pwedeng kasuhan ang nagsampa ng “malicious prosecution”at pagbayarin ng danyos.

“In this jurisdiction, the term “malicious prosecution has been defined as “an action for damages brought by one against whom a criminal prosecution, civil suit, or other legal proceeding has been instituted maliciously and without probable cause, after the termination of such prosecution, suit, or other proceeding in favor of the defendant therein.” To constitute “malicious prosecution,” there must be proof that the prosecution was prompted by a sinister design to vex or humiliate a person, and that it was initiated deliberately by the defendant knowing that his charges were false and groundless. Concededly, the mere act of submitting a case to the authorities for prosecution does not make one liable for malicious prosecution. [Yasona et. Al. vs. De Ramos et. Al. G.R. No. 156339, October 6, 2004]

Kung natalo ka ba sa kaso ay matatawag mo na ba agad itong malicious prosecution?

Hindi. Dahil ang batas ay walang parusa sa pagsasampa ng kaso o pag exercise ng right to litigate.

“The adverse result of an action does not per se make the action wrongful and subject the actor to make payment of damages, for the law could not have meant to impose a penalty on the right to litigate (Rubio v. Court of Appeals, et al., G.R. No. 50911, March 12, 1986, 141 SCRA 488). One who exercises his rights does no injury. Qui jure suo utitur nullum damnum facit. If damage results from a person’s exercising his legal rights, it is damnum absque injuria (Auyong Hian v. Court of Tax Appeals, et al., G.R. No. L-28782, September 12, 1974, 59 SCRA 110 cited in the Ilocos Norte Electric Company v. Hon. Court of Appeals, et al., G.R. No. 53401, November 6, 1989).

Kung gusto nyo magtanong ukol sa threats register at my website at www.e-lawyersonline.com.

Visit and also like my FB page E-Lawyers Online. Ito ang link http://www.facebook.com/E.Lawyers.Online.

Tags:

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *