Pwede Bang Maging Ebidensya Ang Chat Message Sa Paniningil ng Pautang?


“MASISINGIL KO BA ATTY. ANG PAUTANG KO NA ANG MERON LANG AKO AY ANG AMING CHAT MESSAGE NA PINAUTANG KO SIYA AT NATANGGAP NIYA ANG PERA?”

ANG TEXT O CHAT MESSAGE SA CELLPHONE O SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES AT MGA EMAIL AY ELECTRONIC EVIDENCE NA PWEDENG GAMITIN SA KORTE BILANG EBIDENSIYA NG TRANSACTION NA NAGANAP KATULAD NG PANGUNGUTANG NG PERA O LOAN TRANSACTION AYON SA REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8792 O TINATAWAG NA E-COMMERCE LAW AT SUPREME COURT A.M. NO. 01-7-01-SC OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE RULES ON ELECTRONIC EVIDENCE.

Marami sa ating mga OFWs ang nagpapautang sa mga kaibigan at kamag-anak na nasa Pilipinas at karaniwan na ito ay nagaganap lamang sa pamamagitan ng text message o kaya chat message sa Facebook. May nagtanong kung sapat ba ang text o chat message para masingil sa korte ang utang. Ganito ang question ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:

“May kumare ako atty na umutang ng P100,000 para daw sa negosyo. Nagchat lamang kami dahil abroad ako, tinulungan ko atty at pinadala by remittance ang pera at nag chat kami na natanggap naman niya. Pag-uwi ko after 1 year ayw na magbayad. Sabi niya wala naman daw kasulatan. Pwede ko ba atty habulin siya korte gamit ang chat message namin?”

Marami na ngayon ang nagtransaksyon sa Internet at sa mga social networking sites. Karaniwan na nangyayari ay ang pagpapahiram o nagpapautang ng pera kahit hindi sila nagkikita at sa text or chat message lamang at after makuha ang pera ay bigla na lang kakalimutan ang utang. Akala ng umutang ay walang pwedeng maging ebidensiya ng transaksyon nila. Ngunit kung mayroon silang mga e-mail, chat, text message or private message sa Facebook kung saan inamin ng tao na humiram siya ng pera, ito ay pwedeng gamiting evidence sa korte upang singilin siya sa utang. Ang tawag dito ay electronic evidence. Ganun din ang mga picture at post sa mga social networking sites ay mga electronic evidence. Ayon sa Section 6 ng Republic Act No. 8792 otherwise known as E-Commerce Act of the Philippines, recognized na ngayon bilang evidence ang electronic data message:

Section 6. Legal Recognition of Electronic Data Messages – Information shall not be denied legal effect, validity or enforceability solely on the grounds that it is in the data message purporting to give rise to such legal effect, or that it is merely referred to in that electronic data message.

Nasa Section 5 ng R.A. 8792, electronic data message ay anumang inpormasyon galing o pinadala o natanggap sa pamamagitan ng electronic equipment katulad ng computer, cellphone at iba pa.

Section 5. (c) “Electronic Data Message” refers to information generated, sent, received or stored by electronic, optical or similar means.

Nasa Republic Act No. 8972 known as E-Commerce Law na dapat ay i-authenticate ang nasabing electronic message:

Section 11. Authentication of Electronic Data Messages and Electronic Documents. – Until the Supreme Court by appropriate rules shall have so provided, electronic documents, electronic data messages and electronic signatures, shall be authenticated by demonstrating, substantiating and validating a claimed identity of a user, device, or another entity is an information or communication system, among other ways, as follows;

(a) The electronic signature shall be authenticated by proof than a letter , character, number or other symbol in electronic form representing the persons named in and attached to or logically associated with an electronic data message, electronic document, or that the appropriate methodology or security procedures, when applicable, were employed or adopted by such person, with the intention of authenticating or approving in an electronic data message or electronic document;

(b) The electronic data message or electronic document shall be authenticated by proof that an appropriate security procedure, when applicable was adopted and employed for the purpose of verifying the originator of an electronic data message and/or electronic document, or detecting error or alteration in the communication, content or storage of an electronic document or electronic data message from a specific point, which, using algorithm or codes, identifying words or numbers, encryptions, answers back or acknowledgement procedures, or similar security devices.

The Supreme Court may adopt such other authentication procedures, including the use of electronic notarization systems as necessary and advisable, as well as the certificate of authentication on printed or hard copies of the electronic document or electronic data messages by electronic notaries, service providers and other duly recognized or appointed certification authorities.

The person seeking to introduce an electronic data message or electronic document in any legal proceeding has the burden of proving its authenticity by evidence capable of supporting a finding that the electronic data message or electronic document is what the person claims it be.

In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the integrity of the information and communication system in which an electronic data message or electronic document is recorded or stored may be established in any legal proceeding –

a.) By evidence that at all material times the information and communication system or other similar device was operating in a manner that did not affect the integrity of the electronic data message and/or electronic document, and there are no other reasonable grounds to doubt the integrity of the information and communication system,

b.) By showing that the electronic data message and/or electronic document was recorded or stored by a party to the proceedings who is adverse in interest to the party using it; or

c.) By showing that the electronic data message and/or electronic document was recorded or stored in the usual and ordinary course of business by a person who is not a party to the proceedings and who did not act under the control of the party using the record.

Nasa Supreme Court Administrative Matter No. 01-7-01-SC.- Re: Rules on Electronic Evidence ay nagsasabi na ang email, text or private message ay isang electronic evidence at katumbas ng isang documentary evidence. Kung kaya ang pag-amin ng tao sa isang email, text, chat or private message sa Facebook ay isang evidence na pwedeng gamitin sa korte laban sa nagsend nito at ito ay pwedeng ipresenta sa korte sa pamamagitan ng affidavit of evidence at pagpapakita ng nasabing email, text, chat or private message sa Facebook sa loob ng korte. Ganon din ang mga pictures, video at mga audio recording or chat conversation ay mga electronic evidence din.

Kailangan mo ng “affidavit of evidence” kung saan ang mismong tao na nakakita at nakatanggap ng post o comment bilang electronic evidence ay i-authenticate niya ito na ito ay totoo at siya ay may personal knowledge sa katotohanan nito. Ito ay naayon sa Section 1, Rule 9 ng Rules of Electronic Evidence:

“SECTION 1. Affidavit of evidence. – All matters relating to the admissibility and evidentiary weight of an electronic document may be established by an affidavit stating facts of direct personal knowledge of the affiant or based on authentic records. The affidavit must affirmatively show the competence of the affiant to testify on the matters contained therein.”

Kung gusto nyo magtanong ukol sa email, chat, privatde or text message as electronic evidence, register at my website at www.e-lawyersonline.com

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