“PWEDE BANG IBENTA ANG FAMILY HOME KUNG MERON TUMUTUTOL NA NAKATIRA DITO?
ANG FAMILY HOME AY PROTEKTADO NG BATAS LABAN SA PAGKAWALA NITO AT ITO AY EXEMPTED SA EXECUTION, ATTACHMENT OR LEVY. KUNG KAYA ANG PAGBEBENTA O PAGSASANGLA NG FAMILY HOME AY KAILANGAN NA MAY WRITTEN CONSENT NG ASAWA AT MAJORITY NG MGA BENEFICIARIES NA NAKATIRA DITO.
May nagtanong sa E-Lawyers Online kung pwede bang pilitin ang asawa na ibenta ang family home nila dahil hiwalay na sila at hindi na nagsasama sa iisang bubong. Ganito ang tanong ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:
“Attorney, magandang hapon po. Pwede ko po bang mapilit ang asawa ko na ibenta na ang bahay namin dahil hiwalay na naman po kami at hatiin na lang ang napagbentahan nito. Meron po ako 3 anak sa ex-wife ko, ang dalawa po ay nasa kanya pa at nag-aaral at ang isa ay may asawa na. Pwede po ba?”
Ang “family home” ay isa sa pinoprotektahan ng ating batas dahil ito ang tirahan ng pamilya na sinasandigan ng isang matatag na pamayanan. Ito ay nasa Article 152 ng Family Code:
Art. 152. The family home, constituted jointly by the husband and the wife or by an unmarried head of a family, is the dwelling house where they and their family reside, and the land on which it is situated.
Dahil ang “family home” ay protektado ng batas, ito ay exempted sa levy, attachment, forced sale or execution ayon sa Article 153 ng Family Code.
Art. 153. The family home is deemed constituted on a house and lot from the time it is occupied as a family residence. From the time of its constitution and so long as any of its beneficiaries actually resides therein, the family home continues to be such and is exempt from execution, forced sale or attachment except as hereinafter provided and to the extent of the value allowed by law.
Kung ang family home ay ibebenta o isasangla, dapat ay may written consent ang asawa at majority ng mga beneficiaries dito ayon sa Article 158 ng Family Code.
Art. 158. The family home may be sold, alienated, donated, assigned or encumbered by the owner or owners thereof with the written consent of the person constituting the same, the latter’s spouse, and a majority of the beneficiaries of legal age. In case of conflict, the court shall decide.
Ayon sa Supreme Court case na De Mesa vs. Acero [G.R. No. 185064, January 16, 2012], ang exemption sa execution ng family home ay kailangan kunin ng umutang para hindi makuha ang family home at iinvoke sa sheriff:
While it is true that the family home is constituted on a house and lot from the time it is occupied as a family residence and is exempt from execution or forced sale under Article 153 of the Family Code, such claim for exemption should be set up and proved to the Sheriff before the sale of the property at public auction. Failure to do so would estop the party from later claiming the exemption. As this Court ruled in Gomez v. Gealone:
Although the Rules of Court does not prescribe the period within which to claim the exemption, the rule is, nevertheless, well-settled that the right of exemption is a personal privilege granted to the judgment debtor and as such, it must be claimed not by the sheriff, but by the debtor himself at the time of the levy or within a reasonable period thereafter;
Pwede bang hatiin ang family home hanggat may minor o bata na nakatira dito?
Ang sabi ng batas ayon sa Article 159 ng Family Code ay hindi.
Art. 159. The family home shall continue despite the death of one or both spouses or of the unmarried head of the family for a period of ten years or for as long as there is a minor beneficiary, and the heirs cannot partition the same unless the court finds compelling reasons therefor. This rule shall apply regardless of whoever owns the property or constituted the family home.
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