“ATTY., MAKULIT PO ANG COLLECTION AGENCY NG CREDIT CARD KO NA TAWAG NG TAWAG SA BAHAY, ANO PO BA EPEKTO KUNG UMALIS AKO SA BAHAY KO AT TAGUAN SILA?”
ANG PAG-ALIS SA RESIDENCE NG ISANG CARDHOLDER NG WALANG PAMAMAALAM UPANG MAKAIWAS SA PANININGIL NG ISANG CREDIT CARD COMPANY AY NAGBIBIGAY NG SAPANTAHA NA ANG PAGGAMIT NIYA NG CREDIT CARD AY PARA I-DEFRAUD O LOKOHIN ANG NASABING CREDIT CARD COMPANY AYON SA ANTI-ACCESS DEVICE FRAUD O REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8484. ANG PRESUMPTION NG FRAUD UNDER ACCESS ANTI-ACCESS DEVICE FRAUD O REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8484 AY MAGAGAMIT PARA SA CRIMINAL PROSECUTION NG CARDHOLDER AT ITO AY MAY PARUSANG KULONG.
May nagtanong sa E-Lawyers Online kung ano ang epekto ng pagtatago niya sa collection agency ng credit card company na kanyang inutangan. Ganito ang tanong ng reader ng E-Lawyers Online:
“Attorney, may utang po ako sa 2 credit card po at nawalan ako ng work dahil nagsarado kumpanya ko. Pwede ko po ba takasan na lang ito at lumipat ng bahay para hindi na nila ako masingil dahil naiinis na po ako sa mga tumatawag na collector po nila?”
Alam nating lahat na walang nakukulong sa hindi pagbabayad ng utang dito sa Pilipinas. Nasa Sec. 20, Art. III ng 1987 Constitution that “no person shall be imprisoned for non-payment of debt.” Pero kung ang pag-utang ay may kasama o gawa ng pagtalbog ng kanyang tseke para kabayaran sa utang, panloloko upang makautang o pangeestafa, hindi pagbabalik ng pinagbentahan under trust receipt o paggamit ng credit card at pagtatago pagkatapos gamitin ito ay may karampatang parusa na kulong. Ang violation ng Batas Pambansa Bilang 22 otherwise known as Anti-Bouncing Check ay hindi nagpaparusa sa hindi pagbabayad ng utang.
Paano naman ang utang sa credit card company?
Ang Sec. 20, Art. III ng 1987 Constitution ay applicable din sa utang sa credit card company dahil ito ay isa lamang civil obligation. Nagkakaroon lamang ng criminal liability o parusang kulong ang kinuhang utang sa credit card kung ang pagkuha dito ay illegal katulad ng paggamit ng ibang pangalan, pagfalsify ng application at dokumento dito at iba pa. Ang Republic Act No. 8484 o ang Anti-Access Device Fraud ay isang batas na nagpaparusa sa illegal na paggamit ng isang credit card.
Ang utang sa credit card ay walng kulong hanggat hindi mo ito tatakbuhan. Ngunit, kung ang isang may utang sa credit card ay aalis sa kanyang residence upang makaiwas sa paniningil, ang R.A. 8484 ay nagbibigay ng presumption na ang pag-alis ng nasabing borrower ay ginawa to defraud the credit card company. Ang nasabing presumption of fraud ay pwedeng gamitin sa kanyang criminal prosecution for violation ng R.A. 8484.
SECTION 14. Presumption and prima facie evidence of intent to defraud. — The mere possession, control or custody of:
(a) an access device, without permission of the owner or without any lawful authority;
(b) a counterfeit access device;
(c) access device fraudulently applied for;
(d) any device-making or altering equipment by any person whose business or employment does not lawfully deal with the manufacture, issuance, or distribution of access device;
(e) an access device or medium on which an access device is written, not in the ordinary course of the possessor’s trade or business; or
(f) a genuine access device, not in the name of the possessor, or not in the ordinary course of the possessor’s trade or business, shall be prima facie evidence that such device or equipment is intended to be used to defraud.
A cardholder who abandons or surreptitiously leaves the place of employment, business or residence stated in his application or credit card, without informing the credit card company of the place where he could actually be found, if at the time of such abandonment or surreptitious leaving, the outstanding and unpaid balance is past due for at least ninety (90) days and is more than Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00), shall be prima facie presumed to have used his credit card with intent to defraud.
Ano bang gawain ang pinaparusahan sa R.A. 8484, kung saan involved ang credit card o paggamit nito? Katulad ng problema ng reader, pwede siya kasuhan ng Section 9 (j) under R.A. 8484, o pagkuha ng goods gamit ang credit card with intent to defraud:
Section 9. Prohibited Acts. – The following acts shall constitute access device fraud and are hereby declared to be unlawful:
(a) producing, using, trafficking in one or more counterfeit access devices;
(b) trafficking in one or more unauthorized access devices or access devices fraudulently applied for;
(c) using, with intent to defraud, an unauthorized access device;
(d) using an access device fraudulently applied for;
(e) possessing one or more counterfeit access devices or access devices fraudulently applied for;
(f) producing, trafficking in, having control or custody of, or possessing device-making or altering equipment without being in the business or employment, which lawfully deals with the manufacture, issuance, or distribution of such equipment;
(g) inducing, enticing, permitting or in any manner allowing another, for consideration or otherwise to produce, use, traffic in counterfeit access devices, unauthorized access devices or access devices fraudulently applied for;
(h) multiple imprinting on more than one transaction record, sales slip or similar document, thereby making it appear that the device holder has entered into a transaction other than those which said device holder had lawfully contracted for, or submitting, without being an affiliated merchant, an order to collect from the issuer of the access device, such extra sales slip through an affiliated merchant who connives therewith, or, under false pretenses of being an affiliated merchant, present for collection such sales slips, and similar documents;
(i) disclosing any information imprinted on the access device, such as, but not limited to, the account number or name or address of the device holder, without the latter’s authority or permission;
(j) obtaining money or anything of value through the use of an access device, with intent to defraud or with intent to gain and fleeing thereafter;
(k) having in one’s possession, without authority from the owner of the access device or the access device company, an access device, or any material, such as slips, carbon paper, or any other medium, on which the access device is written, printed, embossed, or otherwise indicated;
(l) writing or causing to be written on sales slips, approval numbers from the issuer of the access device of the fact of approval, where in fact no such approval was given, or where, if given, what is written is deliberately different from the approval actually given;
(m) making any alteration, without the access device holder’s authority, of any amount or other information written on the sales slip;
(n) effecting transaction, with one or more access devices issued to another person or persons, to receive payment or any other thing of value;
(o) without the authorization of the issuer of the access device, soliciting a person for the purpose of:
1) offering an access device; or
2) selling information regarding or an application to obtain an access device; or
(p) without the authorization of the credit card system member or its agent, causing or arranging for another person to present to the member or its agent, for payment, one or more evidence or records of transactions made by credit card.
Section 10. Penalties. – Any person committing any of the acts constituting access device fraud enumerated in the immediately preceding section shall be punished with:
(a) a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) or twice the value obtained by the offense, whichever is greater and imprisonment for not less than six (6) years and not more than ten (10) years, in the case of an offense under Section 9 (b)-(e), and (g)-(p) which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under Section 9;
(b) a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) or twice the value obtained by the offense, and imprisonment for not less than ten (10) years and for not more than twelve (12) years, in the case of an offense under Section 9 (a), and (f) of the foregoing section, which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under Section 9; and
(c) a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) or twice the value obtained by the offense, or imprisonment for not less than twelve (12) years and not more than twenty (20) years, or both, in the case of any offense under Section 9, which occurs after a conviction for another offense under said subsection, or an attempt to commit the same.
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