“ATTY., PWEDE BA NAMIN NA BILHIN ANG LUPA NA NASA NAME NG MENOR DE EDAD AT ANG PIPIRMA LANG AY MAGULANG NIYA?”
ANG AGE OF MAJORITY O ANG LEGAL NA EDAD UPANG MAKAPAG KONTRATA AY EIGHTEEN YEARS OLD UNDER REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6809. ANG LEGAL NA EDAD PARA MAGING VALID ANG ISANG KONTRATA AY DAPAT EKSAKTONG 18 YEARS OLD. ANG KONTRATA NG ISANG TAO NA BELOW 18 YEARS OLD KAHIT MAY PARENTAL CONSENT/PAGPAYAG NG MAGULANG AY WALANG BISA AT ISANG UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACT AT HINDI PWEDENG IPATUPAD SA KORTE.
May nagtanong sa E-Lawyers Online kung paano ang pagbili ng lupa na nasa pangalan ng isang menor de edad at meron din nagtanong paano naman ang pagbebenta if ang owner ng lupa ay minor child. Ganito ang tanong niya:
“Attorney, may inaalok sa amin na lupa pero nasa name ng anak nila dahil namana daw ito galing sa lolo at lola. Gusto po namin bilhin pero ang magulang daw ang pipirma ng deed of sale, valid po ba yon?”
“Hello po atty. Matanong ko lang po kung paano po namin mabenta ang condominium unit na binili ko na nilagay ko sa name ng 7 yr old na anak ko. Ginawa ko po yon para hindi mahabol ng ex-husband ko. Hinahanapan po ako ng court order, tama po ba yun?
Nasa Republic Act No. 6809, pinababa ng batas ang age of majority sa 18 years of age, mula sa 21 years of age na dati nakalagay sa New Civil Code.
“Art. 234.Emancipation takes place by the attainment of majority. Unless otherwise provided, majority commences at the age of eighteen years.”
Ibig sabihin nito, ang isang Filipino na 18 years old ay pwede nang makipagkontrata, bomoto at gumawa ng mga civil acts with full legal effect. Ngunit ang kontrata ng isang tao na below 18 years old kahit sila ay binigyan ng parental consent o pinayagan ng mga magulang ay isang unenforceable contract at hindi pwedeng ipa enforce sa korte.
Ayon sa Article 225 ng Family Code, walang karapatan na ibenta ng magulang ang property ng anak ng walang court order kung ito ay more than P50,000 ang halaga. Para maging valid ang bentahan, kailangan ng magulang na kumuha ng court order at special court order para sa pagbebenta.
Articles 225 of the Family Code provide:
ART. 225. The father and the mother shall jointly exercise legal guardianship over the property of their unemancipated common child without the necessity of a court appointment. In case of disagreement, the father’s decision shall prevail, unless there is a judicial order to the contrary.
Where the market value of the property or the annual income of the child exceeds P50,000, the parent concerned shall be required to furnish a bond in such amount as the court may determine, but not less than ten per centum (10%) of the value of the property or annual income, to guarantee the performance of the obligations prescribed for general guardians.
A verified petition for approval of the bond shall be filed in the proper court of the place where the child resides, or if the child resides in a foreign country, in the proper court of the place where the property or any part thereof is situated.
The petition shall be docketed as a summary special proceeding in which all incidents and issues regarding the performance of the obligations referred to in the second paragraph of this Article shall be heard and resolved.
The ordinary rules on guardianship shall be merely suppletory except when the child is under substitute parental authority, or the guardian is a stranger, or a parent has remarried, in which case the ordinary rules on guardianship shall apply.
Corollarily, Section 7, Rule 93 of the Rules of Court also provides:
SEC. 7. Parents as Guardians. – When the property of the child under parental authority is worth two thousand pesos or less, the father or the mother, without the necessity of court appointment, shall be his legal guardian. When the property of the child is worth more than two thousand pesos, the father or the mother shall be considered guardian of the child’s property, with the duties and obligations of guardians under these Rules, and shall file the petition required by Section 2 hereof. For good reasons, the court may, however, appoint another suitable persons.
Kung gusto nyo na magkonsulta tungkol sa tamang pag-aayos ng property ng minor child at kailangan na mga dokumento nito o sa tamang proseso, register at my website at www.e-lawyersonline.com.
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