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Ano Ang Prosesong Dapat Gawin Kung Ang Nakasanlang Lupa Ay Hindi Tinutubos?


“MAY NAKASANGLA PO ATTY. SA AMIN NA LUPA AT HINDI NAKABAYAD, HAWAK NAMIN YONG DEED OF MORTGAGE, PAANO NAMIN MAKUKUHA ANG LUPA NG HINDI NAGKAKASO?”

ANG EXTRAJUDICIAL FORECLOSURE OF MORTGAGE AY ISANG SPECIAL AT MABILIS NA PROSESO UNDER ACT NO. 3135 AS AMENDED KUNG SAAN PINAPAYAGAN ANG PAGLIPAT NG TITULO NG LUPA PAPUNTA SA PINAGSANGLAAN NITO KUNG HINDI NA NAKABAYAD ANG NAGSANGLA NITO NA HINDI NA KAILANGAN ANG PAGKAKAROON NG KASO AT PAGPRESENTA NG EBIDENSIYA SA KORTE. SA GANITONG PROSESO, ANG NAILIT O NAREMATA O NAFORECLOSE NA LUPA NA ISINANGLA NA MAY REAL ESTATE MORTGAGE AY PWEDENG BILHIN ULI O I-REDEEM NG MAY-ARI O NAGSANGLA SA LOOB NG TAON MULA SA PAGKAKAFORECLOSE NITO EXCEPT KUNG ANG UMTANG AY ISANG CORPORATION NA KUNG SAAN MAS MAIKLI ANG REDEMPTION PERIOD.

Marami ang nagrequest sa E-Lawyers Online na magdiscuss tungkol sa sanglaan ng lupa at paano ang paglilipat ng titulo kung hindi nakabayad ang nagsangla. Ganito ang question ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:

“Atty., sinangla po sa amin ang lupa ng kapitbahay namin sa halagang P500,000 at may pirmahan kami sa barangay tungkol dito. Hindi siya nakabayad, sapat na ba ang pirmahan namin para makuha ang lupa at titulo at malipat sa amin? Pwede ba atty na hindi na dadaan sa korte o hindi na magsasampa ng kaso?”

Ang pagsasangla ng lupa ay isang kumplikadong transaksyon na maraming importanteng legalidad na dapat pag-aralan bago pumasok. Una na dito ang dokumento na dapat gamitin sa sanglaan o mortgage at ang procedure na dapat piliin sa panahon na hindi nakabayad ang nagsangla at kung paano iilitin o i-foreclose ang mortgage. Ang importanteng dokument na dapat mapirmahan ng nagsasangla ay ang “Deed of Real Estate Mortgage” kung saan pumapayag ang umutang na tao na isangla ang kanyang lupa sa nagpautang na may kundisyon na ang utang ay babayaran sa isang fix na date and time at kung hindi makakabayad ay ang lupa ang sasagot na kabayaran sa utang pagkatapos sumunod sa proseso ng batas.

Ang tawag dito ay pag-ilit o pag foreclose ng mortgage. Ang pag-ilit ng nakasanglang lupa ay may sumusunod na proseso ng batas. Bawal ang automatic na paglilipat ng titulo ng nakasanglang lupa na hindi dumadaan sa foreclosure proceeding. Dahil ang paghahawak ng mga nasabing titulo ng lupa/rehistro ng sasakyan ay hindi nagbibigay ng automatic na karapatan sa nagpautang ng pagmamay-ari sa nasabing property. Ito ay bawal sa batas na kung tawagin ay “pactum commisorium” na nasa Article 2088 ng New Civil Code. “The creditor cannot appropriate the things given by way of pledge or mortgage, or dispose of them. Any stipulation to the contrary is null and void.” Dalawang klase ng proseso ang foreclosure of mortgage; (1) judicial forclosure under Rule 68 of the Rules of Court; or (2) Extrajudicial Foreclosure of Mortgage under Act No. 3135/4118.

Ang Extrajudicial Foreclosure of Mortgage under Act No. 3135/4118 ay isang proseso na bagamat dadaan ng korte, pero ito ay hindi na kailangan ng trial o pagprepresenta ng ebidensiya. Hindi ito isang full-blown na kaso dahil ito ay para lamang application sa korte.

Section 1. When a sale is made under a special power inserted in or attached to any real-estate mortgage hereafter made as security for the payment of money or the fulfillment of any other obligation, the provisions of the following election shall govern as to the manner in which the sale and redemption shall be effected, whether or not provision for the same is made in the power.

Ang extrajudicial foreclosure of mortgage ay special na proseso kung saan nakalagay sa Real estate mortgage na pinirmahan ng mga partido na binibigyan ng authority ang taong pinagsanglaan na ibenta sa public auction ang lupa kung hindi nakabayad sa utang ang nagsangla pagkatapos ito ay ipublish for public auction sa newspaper. Ang foreclosure ng mortgage sa ganitong proseso ay sinasampa sa Regional Trial Court at ito ay pinapamahalaan ng executive clerk of court at ng sheriff. Ito ay mas mabilis at matipid na proseso kesa sa judicial foreclosure. Malilipat lamang ang titulo sa taong pinagsanglaan kung natapos na ang redemption period na binigay sa may-ari ng naayon sa batas.

Ang foreclosure of real estate mortgage ngayon under General Banking Act (RA 8791) o pag-iilit ng sanglaan ng lupa ng banko ay nagbibigay sa isang tao ng isang taon (ONE YEAR) na i-redeem o bayaran ang utang kasama ang mga nagastos sa public auction para mabawi niya ang lupang sinangla. Kung hindi mababayaran ang utang at mababawi ng tao ang lupa, ito ay ililipat na sa pangalan ng banko. Pero, kung ang nagsangla ay isang korporasyon, ang period of redemption o ang taning sa pagbayad ng utang at pagbawi ng lupa ay three (3) months lang mula sa foreclosure ng mortgage.

Nasa Section 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 ng Act No. 3135 as amended by Act No. 4118 ang procedure ng extrajudicial foreclosure of mortgage:

Sec. 3. Notice shall be given by posting notices of the sale for not less than twenty days in at least three public places of the municipality or city where the property is situated, and if such property is worth more than four hundred pesos, such notice shall also be published once a week for at least three consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the municipality or city.

Sec. 4. The sale shall be made at public auction, between the hours or nine in the morning and four in the afternoon; and shall be under the direction of the sheriff of the province, the justice or auxiliary justice of the peace of the municipality in which such sale has to be made, or a notary public of said municipality, who shall be entitled to collect a fee of five pesos each day of actual work performed, in addition to his expenses.

Sec. 5. At any sale, the creditor, trustee, or other persons authorized to act for the creditor, may participate in the bidding and purchase under the same conditions as any other bidder, unless the contrary has been expressly provided in the mortgage or trust deed under which the sale is made.

Section 6. In all cases in which an extrajudicial sale is made under the special power herein before referred to, the debtor, his successors in interest or any judicial creditor or judgment creditor of said debtor, or any person having a lien on the property subsequent to the mortgage or deed of trust under which the property is sold, may redeem the same at any time within the term of one year from and after the date of the sale; and such redemption shall be governed by the provisions of sections four hundred and sixty-four to four hundred and sixty-six, inclusive, of the Code of Civil Procedure, in so far as these are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act.”

“Section 7. In any sale made under the provisions of this Act, the purchaser may petition the Court of First Instance of the province or place where the property or any part thereof is situated, to give him possession thereof during the redemption period, furnishing bond in an amount equivalent to the use of the property for a period of twelve months, to indemnify the debtor in case it be shown that the sale was made without violating the mortgage or without complying with the requirements of this Act. Such petition shall be made under oath and filed in form of an ex parte motion in the registration or cadastral proceedings if the property is registered, or in special proceedings in the case of property registered under the Mortgage Law or under section one hundred and ninety-four of the Administrative Code, or of any other real property encumbered with a mortgage duly registered in the office of any register of deeds in accordance with any existing law, and in each case the clerk of the court shall, upon the filing of such petition, collect the fees specified in paragraph eleven of section one hundred and fourteen of Act Numbered Four hundred and ninety-six, as amended by Act Numbered Twenty-eight hundred and sixty-six, and the court shall, upon approval of the bond, order that a writ of possession issue, addressed to the sheriff of the province in which the property is situated, who shall execute said order immediately.

“Section 8. The debtor may, in the proceedings in which possession was requested, but not later than thirty days after the purchaser was given possession, petition that the sale be set aside and the writ of possession cancelled, specifying the damages suffered by him, because the mortgage was not violated or the sale was not made in accordance with the provisions hereof, and the court shall take cognizance of this petition in accordance with the summary procedure provided for in section one hundred and twelve of Act Numbered Four hundred and ninety-six; and if it finds the complaint of the debtor justified, it shall dispose in his favor of all or part of the bond furnished by the person who obtained possession. Either of the parties may appeal from the order of the judge in accordance with section fourteen of Act Numbered Four hundred and ninety-six; but the order of possession shall continue in effect during the pendency of the appeal.

“Section 9. When the property is redeemed after the purchaser has been given possession, the redeemer shall be entitled to deduct from the price of redemption any rentals that said purchaser may have collected in case the property or any part thereof was rented; if the purchaser occupied the property as his own dwelling, it being town property, or used it gainfully, it being rural property, the redeemer may deduct from the price the interest of one per centum per month provided for in section four hundred and sixty-five of the Code of Civil Procedure.”

Pwede bang mag extrajudicial foreclosure of mortgage sa mga sanglaan na pinirmahan sa harap ng kapitan ng barangay?

Hindi. Unless ang sanglaan na pinirmahan sa harap ng kapitan ng barangay ay nanotarized din sa Notary Public at naglalaman ng special power of attorney sa pinagsanglaan at binigyan siya ng power to sell the land sa isang public auction in accordance with Act No. 3135 as amended, hindi pwede dito ang extrajudicial foreclosure of mortgage dahil ito ang hahanapin ng executive clerk of court sa pagsasampa ng application. Pwedeng gawin ang extrajudicial foreclosure kung ang notarized Deed of Real Estate Mortgage ay naglalaman ng special power of attorney sa pinagsanglaan at binigyan siya ng power to sell the land sa isang public auction in accordance with Act No. 3135 as amended. Kung wala ang nasabing authority sa loob ng kasulatan ng sanglaan, judicial foreclosure ang dapat gawin ng pinagsanglaan.

Ang judicial foreclosure ay ang proseso kung saan sinasampa ang complaint sa korte at papatunayan na hindi nakabayad ang tao na nagsangla at ang collateral na lupa ay kinukuha ng pinagsanglaan bilang kabayaran sa nasabing utang. Malilipat lamang ang titulo sa taong pinagsanglaan kung final na ang decision ng korte at natapos na ang redemption period na binigay sa may-ari ng naayon sa batas.

Kung gusto nyo na magkonsulta tungkol sa extrajudicial foreclosure of mortgage at upang maiwasan ang pagkailit ng lupa ng banko, register at my website at www.e-lawyersonline.com.

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