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Ano Ang Legal Remedy Kung Ang Conjugal Property Naibenta Ng Asawa?


“ATTY., ANONG PWEDE KONG GAWIN SA NABENTA NG ASAWA KO NA CONJUGAL PROPERTY NAMIN NA WALANG WRITTEN CONSENT KO? PWEDE BA BAWIIN?

ANG CONJUGAL PROPERTY NA NABENTA NG ASAWA NG WALANG WRITTEN CONSENT NG KANYANG ASAWA AY PWEDENG IPAKANSELA SA KORTE DAHIL ITO AY ISANG VOID O WALANG BISANG TRANSACTION. ANG PAGBEBENTA NG CONJUGAL PROPERTY NG ISANG ASAWA NG WALANG COURT ORDER O WRITTEN CONSENT O NAKASULAT NA PAGPAYAG NG KANYANG KABIYAK NA ASAWA AY VOID AT WALANG EPEKTO AT PWEDENG IPA-CANCEL O BAWIIN NG HINDI PUMAYAG NA ASAWA SA BUYER O BUMILI NITO SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PETISYON SA KORTE.

Maraming nagtatanong kung ano ang legal na remedy laban sa walang consent na pagbebenta ng conjugal property ng asawa. Marami din nagtatanong sa mga bumibili na ano ang legal na epekto nito sa kanila kung bimili sila ng walang written consent ang asawa. Ganito ang problema ng isang reader ng E-Lawyers Online:

“Hi po atty., meron po binebenta sa akin na condo pero nakapangalan sa mag-asawa, naghiwalay na sila at nagbebenta lang sa akin yong lalaki. Legal po ba yon kung siya lang pipirma?

“Atty., ano po gagawin ko para mabawi ang nabentang kotse ng asawa ko ng wala akong pirma?”

Nasa Article 96 ng Family Code na ang pagaayos at paggamit conjugal property ay parehong nasa mag-asawa ngunit kung merong hindi pagkakasunduan sa pagaayos o paggamit (administration), ang desisyon ng lalaking asawa ang mananaig pero pwedeng i-apela ng babaeng asawa sa korte sa loob ng 5 years mula sa desisyon na yon.

Art. 96. The administration and enjoyment of the community property shall belong to both spouses jointly. In case of disagreement, the husband’s decision shall prevail, subject to recourse to the court by the wife for proper remedy, which must be availed of within five years from the date of the contract implementing such decision.

In the event that one spouse is incapacitated or otherwise unable to participate in the administration of the common properties, the other spouse may assume sole powers of administration. These powers do not include disposition or encumbrance without authority of the court or the written consent of the other spouse. In the absence of such authority or consent, the disposition or encumbrance shall be void. However, the transaction shall be construed as a continuing offer on the part of the consenting spouse and the third person, and may be perfected as a binding contract upon the acceptance by the other spouse or authorization by the court before the offer is withdrawn by either or both offerors. (206a)

Kung ang asawa ay may sakit o hindi nakakasama sa pagaayos ng conjugal property o nasa abroad, ang present na asawa o asawang nasa Pilipinas ay pwedeng mag-aayos o mag-administer ng conjugal property. Pero ang power na ito ay power of administration lang at hindi kasama dito ang power to sell or dispose the conjugal property. Samakatuwid, ang asawa na nasa Pilipinas ay hindi binibigyan ng batas na magbenta ng napundar na ari-arian ng mag-asawa ng walang written consent ang asawa na OFW na nasa abroad. Ang pagbebenta o pagsasangla ng conjugal property ay dapat may authority of the court or the written consent of the other spouse. Kung walang court order o written consent ng asawa, ang pagbebenta o pagsasangla ng conjugal property ay void o walang epekto at pwede itong ikansela o bawiin ng asawang hindi pumayag dito sa korte.

Paano kung nabenta na ng asawa ng walang written consent ng kanyang asawa?

Pwede itong ipakansela pero kailangan itong idaan sa proseso ng korte. Ang tawag sa legal na remedy na ito ay “petition for cancellation of sale or mortgage.” Ito ay siang petisyon sa Regional Trial Court kung saan papatunayan ng nagsampang asawa na legal siyang asawa ng nagbenta at ang binenta na ari-arian ay parte ng conjugal property nila at ito ay binenta ng walang written consent niya. Ang buyer ay pwedeng magsampa ng kasong kriminal sa nagbenta kung may misrepresentation o kaya kasong sibil para maibalik ang kanyang binayad. Hindi pwedeng pilitin ng buyer na papirmahin sa bentahan o sanglaan ang asawa na hindi pumirma. Pwede niyang pilitin ito sa pamamagitan ng korte kung ang pera na pinagbentahan o pinagsanglaan ay ginamit para sa pamilya. Ayon sa Article 95 ng Family Code, ang mga sumusunod na bayarin ay sagot ng conjugal property:

Art. 94. The absolute community of property shall be liable for:

(1) The support of the spouses, their common children, and legitimate children of either spouse; however, the support of illegitimate children shall be governed by the provisions of this Code on Support;

(2) All debts and obligations contracted during the marriage by the designated administrator-spouse for the benefit of the community, or by both spouses, or by one spouse with the consent of the other;

(3) Debts and obligations contracted by either spouse without the consent of the other to the extent that the family may have been benefited;

(4) All taxes, liens, charges and expenses, including major or minor repairs, upon the community property;

(5) All taxes and expenses for mere preservation made during marriage upon the separate property of either spouse used by the family;

(6) Expenses to enable either spouse to commence or complete a professional or vocational course, or other activity for self-improvement;

(7) Antenuptial debts of either spouse insofar as they have redounded to the benefit of the family;

(8) The value of what is donated or promised by both spouses in favor of their common legitimate children for the exclusive purpose of commencing or completing a professional or vocational course or other activity for self-improvement;

(9) Antenuptial debts of either spouse other than those falling under paragraph (7) of this Article, the support of illegitimate children of either spouse, and liabilities incurred by either spouse by reason of a crime or a quasi-delict, in case of absence or insufficiency of the exclusive property of the debtor-spouse, the payment of which shall be considered as advances to be deducted from the share of the debtor-spouse upon liquidation of the community; and

(10) Expenses of litigation between the spouses unless the suit is found to be groundless.

If the community property is insufficient to cover the foregoing liabilities, except those falling under paragraph (9), the spouses shall be solidarily liable for the unpaid balance with their separate properties. (161a, 162a, 163a, 202a-205a)

 

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